So, You Want to Study Geopolitics?

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A GUIDE TO COURSES, CURRICULA, & RESOURCES

Compiled by Professor Bert Chapman, MA, MSLS, Purdue University Libraries and School of Information Studies and Leonard Hochberg, PhD, Coordinator, Mackinder Forum-US

SOME PRACTICAL ADVICE:

The term “geopolitics” is an overused phrase. It can be heard on television, in the lecture hall, and is now the synonym for international strategic rivalry.  Yet, few universities and colleges actually offer courses devoted to geopolitical analysis.  If you want to find out more about geopolitics or even major in geopolitics, what should you do?  This document has been prepared as a guide to the study of geopolitics.

WHY STUDY GEOPOLITICS?

Essentially, geopolitics is the study of interstate conflict in geographic perspective.  States seek a favorable environment for the projection of military force, political influence, cultural values, and economic opportunity.  Geopolitics, therefore, focuses on, first, the structure of alliances; second, the access to strategic goods; third, the size, geographic concentration and loyalties of ethnic groups; and, finally, the locations of natural and artificial barriers or carriers for inhibiting or facilitating the movement of weapons, materiel and armed force during wartime.  

Geopolitics assumes that adversarial relationships among states will remain a massive fact of the human condition.  War will not disappear.  In fact, the fundamental way to secure “peace” is to deter aggression by maintaining a favorable balance of power.  But how much power is adequate?  How much is too much?  One of the strategic dilemmas of the balance of power is that too much power provokes fear and consternation among neighbors, including potential allies, leading to an attempt to rebalance regional and, potentially, extra-regional power relations.  Another dilemma arises from the fact that states that cannot or will not contribute signficantly to the balance of power find that their options for independent action in the international arena to be highly constrained despite their legal claim to sovereignty.  The ideal of legal equality among states is undermined by the reality of power relationships. The practice of geopolitics and the implementation of grand strategy are replete with such strategic dilemmas.

National security advisors formulate grand strategy.  The practitioner of grand strategy should adopt an attitude toward the world that takes into account the evolving intentions and capabilities of adversaries, competitors and client states—as well as those of one’s own government and its allies.  A grand strategy must have a clearly articulated goal, one that the citizenry in a democracy can accept and rally around.

For those who implement a grand strategy, constant vigilance is required.  Intelligence services must gather actionable information on how the intentions and capabilities of enemies are changing; homeland security agents must seek to detect, forestall and quash terror attacks, sometimes sponsored by enemy states.  Those who formulate or implement grand strategy must be women and men of character who are not faint of heart.

Geopolitics draws together the insights of various academic disciplines, most notably geography, history and international relations.  A geopolitical thinker attempts to discern the geographical patterns underpinning the politics of the international arena.  It combines an appreciation of the conditioning influences of geography with how certain locations will, over time, become more or less significant due to changes in transport and weapons.  

Geopolitics regards international relations as a puzzle, with each new piece (i.e., observation or theory) providing a more fulsome picture of the causes, course and consequences of conflict.  Because no one discipline has a monopoly on an understanding of international conflict, we believe that one of the great strengths of geopolitics is its bias toward interdisciplinary studies and the integration of distinct, though related, bodies of knowledge.

Geopolitics does a number of things that make it worthy of study.  First, it defines the scope of its subject matter with a degree of precision and identifies how an investigation ought to proceed to connect geography with history and international relations. Second, it holds out the prospect of forecasting the future, just as Halford John Mackinder did in 1904 and 1919 when he identified how the building of the trans-Siberian railway occasioned the rise a new and significant land-based threat, emerging from the Eurasian “Heartland,” to the maritime powers located along the Eurasian littoral.  Third, it seeks to reconcile grand theory with the facts “on the ground.”

PARTISANSHIP AND OBJECTIVITY IN GEOPOLITICAL ANALYSIS

How is it possible to see the facts “on the ground” from your dorm room, library or home office?  Not everyone can travel the world, from Iran and Afghanistan, to Egypt and India, to the Balkans and the lands of the former Ottoman Empire, and to the Indian Ocean and beyond, searching for first-hand geopolitical insights.  Reading Robert D. Kaplan’s theoretically informed assessments of local conflicts enables the armchair geopolitical thinker to capture, through the eyes of an astute observer, an appreciation of the causes of geopolitical conflict.

If you cannot travel to geopolitical flashpoints, what should you do?  We recommend reading widely from various sources, including historical accounts of conflict and position papers and blog posts of the think tanks and government agencies.  When selecting what to read, do not limit yourself.  Read well beyond the apologists for the powers that are engaged in the conflict.  

Your mission is to rise above subjectivity and partisanship in order to achieve an objective assessment of not only the causes of conflict but also the consequences for the security of your own nation-state.  Without such an objective assessment, the geopolitical analyst is likely to parrot a “party line,” thereby falling prey to ideological or wishful thinking.  As Raymond Aron wrote in Peace and War, 1966: “It is prudent to act in accordance with the particular situation and the concrete data, and not in accordance with some system, or out of passive obedience to a norm or pseudo-norm … such as a ‘world safe for democracy’ or a ‘world from which power politics will have disappeared.’”

GEOPOLITICS, PAST & PRESENT

Geopolitical thinking has its origins in the early part of the twentieth century when there emerged for the first time a “closed” international political system.  The “known” terrain of the world no longer blended into the “half known” and then into the “unknown.”  The land masses of the world were not only mapped but events occurring in remote locations reverberated across the globe.  The assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria Hungry in June of 1914 triggered a war in which none of the major powers of Europe (and beyond) could remain either neutral or indifferent.  

In a recent incarnation, geopolitical thought emerged just as “globalization” began to retreat before ethnic conflict, inter-civilizational conflict, the rise of terrorism, etc.  Suddenly, the underside of globalization was exposed: gun running, narcotics smuggling, counterfeiting currencies, antiquities theft, illegal migration, and human trafficking.  The exposure of these hidden supply and demand chains revealed that globalization was not an unalloyed good.  The illicit flows of messages, goods and humans required a response: states began to reconstruct strong borders by installing high-tech sensors and physical barriers. 

More recently, the rise of interstate competition, particularly between autocratic regimes such as the People’s Republic of China and more liberal ones such as the United States, has sparked a revival of interest in geopolitics, geoeconomics and grand strategy.  “Geopolitics” is now in vogue. If you Google “geopolitics,” you will find that there are approximately 28,500,000 results.

By contrast, geostrategy, or the impact of geography on military affairs, is a very old concern.  Geostrategic thought appeared in many ancient civilizations, usually when a war or invasion threatened the very survival of a polity.  Thucydides (The History of the Peloponnesian War) in Ancient Greece and Sun Tzu (The Art of War) in Ancient China are usually mentioned as the founders of geostrategic thought.  For those students who seek an appreciation of the geostrategy of insurrection in the ancient world, we recommend reading Samuel I and II from the Hebrew Bible. Kautilya in Ancient India also wrote a foundational geopolitical text (Arthaśhāstra).  All four are available in multiple translations.  Students should seek mastery of these texts as experts in the field of geopolitics will often communicate by referencing salient events or theories first mentioned in these texts.

We believe that there is no substitute for reading the works of the great geopolitical thinkers, ancient and modern.  Alfred Thayer MahanHalford John Mackinder, and Nicholas Spykman—to mention but three modern authors—must be read in order to gain an understanding of how geopolitical thought integrates disparate fields of knowledge into coherent patterns and predictions.  By reading and absorbing the thought of these authors, students enter into a long, vibrant, and complex tradition.

HOW TO STUDY GEOPOLITICS

Fortunately, our colleague, Professor Geoff Sloan, who is the Coordinator of the Mackinder Forum-UK, published a basic syllabus on March 12, 2009 in Foreign Affairs entitled “What to Read on Geopolitics”.  Professor Albert Chapman has published two books providing a guide to research and relevant resources: Researching National Security and Intelligence Policy and Geopolitics: A Guide to the Issues. Dartmouth University has posted several guides to the study of geopolitics.  The “Classics of Strategy and Diplomacy” website provides access to several relevant syllabi and interesting posts.  For a guide to geopolitical hypotheses and theories, please consult Professor Phil Kelly’s Classical Geopolitics: A New Analytical Model.  Finally, one goal of the Mackinder Forum website is to make geopolitical thought accessible to undergraduates and graduate students.  

If a student wishes to specialize in geopolitics, and if his or her home institution does not offer courses in the field, then he or she may have to create a personal academic focus.  This is not as hard as it sounds.  Some institutions allow the student to major and minor (or even double major) in the two most important fields related to geopolitics, specifically international relations and geography.  Other institutions allow the student to construct an “interdisciplinary major.”  Figuring out how to combine courses in international relations and geography is the critical first step.  It may also be possible to enroll in an online course that specifically focuses on geopolitics, some of which are listed below.  Consult your catalog to determine if the credits will transfer to your home institution.

The student should also consult with a sympathetic member of the faculty.  In a large university setting, this may be a hurdle.  Visiting an advisor during office hours may be an intimidating experience.  Suppose you drop by during office hours and discover that your advisor is not sympathetic, in that case seek counsel in the Dean of Students office.  Students at a large university do have one advantage; they usually have a smorgasbord of courses from which to select in order to construct an individualized major.  On the other hand, students at a small liberal arts college may find their choices more constrained.  However, they might more readily secure opportunities for independent study or tutorials.  Do not give up.  In either case, the student should carefully weigh what courses to take and when to enroll so as to complete their graduation requirements in a timely fashion.

We enthusiastically recommend taking courses on the history, economy, culture and the relevant language of an adversary or allied power.  Courses on the Middle East, China, Russia, Eastern Europe or another significant flashpoint where conflict is likely to occur will ground your understanding of geopolitical theories in the actual circumstances of a specific region.  

Having completed technical courses in geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing is another means by which students majoring in geopolitics may more readily secure an appointment with a national security or intelligence agency.  In the near future, major corporations and consulting firms (TD International, LLC (TDI) and Ernst and Young (EY)) may begin to seek experts in geopolitics and grand strategy in order to navigate the political shoals associated with interstate geoeconomic conflict.   (Note: Another good idea is to secure an internship with an online publisher, a think tank, a corporation (such as Microsoft), or a government agency that engages in geopolitical analysis.) We highly recommend mastering a skill set that will result in gainful employment.

Here are some topics that might be embedded in courses offered by your university which, when taken over a four-year curriculum, should be considered as fundamental for a geopolitical focus.  Please note that we are not insisting on specific course titles; instead, we are suggesting relevant topics.

*In the field of geography: world geography, domestic political geography, economic geography, military geography (tactical and operational), and international geopolitics (if offered).
*In the field of political science: international relations (introductory and advanced), comparative politics (introductory and advanced), global politics, national security, strategic culture, grand strategy (if offered).
*In the field of history: Ancient Greece (to appreciate fully the work of Thucydides), 19th and 20th century European history (to appreciate fully the work of the foundational geopolitical thinkers, such as Mahan, Mackinder, and Spykman), the history of 20th century diplomacy and war (World War I, World War II and the Cold War), history of technology.
*In the field of economics: international trade, comparative economic systems and geoeconomics (if offered).
*In an area study of choice: relevant courses in history, sociology, anthropology, political science, geography, religion, philosophy, literature, art and language.
*In new or emerging technologies and their likely political impact: new energy technologies, interplanetary travel, military innovations, artificial intelligence/machine learning, innovative solutions for batteries, mineral processing and/or history of manufacturing, etc.
*In mathematics: statistics.
*Critical skill sets: geographic information systems analysis and remote sensing in order to engage in computerized mapping and geospatial intelligence analysis.

As you develop your program, one of your tasks will be to assess the validity of allegedly universal theories (that are typically developed in the social sciences) against the relevant facts as observed in particular locations and at specific times.  Geopolitical analysis requires that you walk an intellectual tight rope.  You must avoid the lure of grand theories that may not square with the facts “on the ground” while recognizing that generalization and prediction requires that you envision patterns that are frequently obscured by focusing solely on isolated locations and idiosyncratic events.  

Thankfully, there are a number of websites that attempt to reconcile unique events in specific locales with regional or global processes and trajectories. But before mentioning those websites, we must discuss how maps and atlases advance the study of geopolitics.

MAPS AND ATLASES

In making the leap from partisanship to an objective understanding, you must place the conflict in its relevant geographic context.  To do this, we also recommend learning to “read” maps and atlases.  Maps orient the analyst to the places where the action occurred.  Every placename mentioned in your assessment (either an article or a term paper) should be depicted on a map.  There is no substitute for knowing and showing where the action has taken place.

But that is just the beginning.  Maps enable a deeper understanding of international conflict by allowing you to visualize strategic information: first and foremost, the shifting nature of alliances over time; second, the location of minerals and food stuffs required to sustain a society or an armed force during times of war; third, the concentration of (potentially disloyal) ethnic groups inhabiting part of the territorial jurisdiction of a state; fourth, transportation and travel routes required to sustain markets or military campaigns; and, finally, the locations from which military campaigns might be launched or a defense might be mounted.  Having such strategic locations, routes, territorial boundaries, and alliances clearly in mind and ultimately drawn on a map is critical for appreciating the relationships among these factors.

Imagine, by way of example, that you wanted to write a paper on Napoleon’s Russian campaign, which began in June and ended in December of 1812.  In researching why Napoleon’s invasion of Russia resulted in a disastrous defeat, several factors may seem significant: the distance to Moscow from the French army’s staging areas; the necessity of foraging for food as the French army marched ahead of its supply train; the Russian defenders declined to offer battle as they retreat toward Moscow, thereby denying Napoleon the prospect of a decisive victory; the scorched earth policy initiated by the Russian peasantry; the onset of winter; and the Russian refusal to offer terms after Napoleon took Moscow, which led him to order a desperate retreat in the teeth of falling temperatures.  All these factors conspired to destroy Napoleon’s army.

How to capture the relationship of geography, to timing, distance, location, routes taken, and temperature, and relate these factors to the number of the Napoleon’s forces, as they invade and later as they retreat, is the problem.  Here is how a French engineer, Charles Minard, mapped these factors in 1869, creating a dramatic cartographic representation of this military disaster.

Charles Minard, November 20, 1869, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/29/Minard.png, accessed March 5, 2021.

Notice what Minard’s map did not do.  It did not depict the Russian forces: the size of the Russian army (and allied forces) as it retreated before the French invading forces.  How fast did the Russian army retreat?  Where did it retreat?  Did the Russian army grow in size as garrisons joined the retreating defenders?  Since a military invasion is the quintessential adversarial relationship, what the other side did, first to defend and later to counterattack, should also be depicted in a map similar to the one drawn by Minard.  Such a map would round out this strategic story.

Here too the geopolitical analyst must be wary.  Strategic maps are depictions of power relationships through space.  At least since the time that the administrators of the Habsburg Empire mapped the terrain of its domains and the surrounding contested environs in the eighteenth century, strategic thinkers and have recognized that maps are a military force multiplier.  The maps generated by geopolitical analysts offer practical advice to those who know how to interpret them.  Therefore, government officials have historically declared map collections a state secret. When they issued maps, state cartographers frequently included disinformation to deceive the unwary.  Sometimes, maps have been deployed as instruments of propaganda.  By seeking to heighten the perception of the threats posed by neighboring states, maps have been drawn not to elicit dispassionate assessments but emotional responses.  Scholars have taken note of how cartography advances the purposes of states, and an entire cottage industry has emerged to deconstruct the meaning of maps and the intentions of the cartographers who drew them.

Nevertheless, maps and atlases are significant resources for geopolitical analysis.  When writing a paper or an article, we recommend that you seek out the map librarian at your college or university library.  He or she will be delighted to share their “treasured” collection with a serious researcher.  Indicate clearly what your research topic is; the date and location are essential features in that description.  The map librarian should be able to direct you to the maps or atlases most relevant to your research.

Learning how to draw your own maps is beyond the scope of this introduction to geopolitics.  Instead, we recommend the following.  If you need to include a map from an atlas or from the map collection, ask permission of the map librarian to take a picture of it for inclusion in your paper.  Be careful to cite the origin of the map.  If the map is still under copyright, then find a similar map on the web that is in the public domain.  You may then copy it into your research paper or article but, once again, provide a citation.  If all else fails and the map is still under copyright, link to its location in your footnotes.  That way, the attentive reader of your work will follow the link in your footnote and thereby appreciate your effort to display the relevant geopolitical factors that informed your analysis.  

Below we provide a very small sample of relevant atlases.  Note: although we provide links to websites where these atlases may be purchased, it is not necessary to acquire them.  Some are beyond the means of the most dedicated collectors.  Others, such as the Shepherd’s Historical Atlas and the Oxford Atlas of the World, are essential references.

ATLASES

A basic, one volume atlas of the world:
*Oxford Atlas of the World (Oxford University Press, 2020).
*National Geographic Atlas of the World, 11th edition (National Geographic, 1919).

Historical atlases depicting the development of the European state system:
*Edward Whiting Fox, Atlas of European History (Oxford University Press, 1968).
*William R. Shepherd, Shepherd’s Historical Atlas, Ninth Edition Revised and Updated (Barnes and Noble Books, 1980).

Historical atlas, world history
Time Books, Times Atlas of World History (Hammond World Atlas Corp, 1993).
R.R. Palmer (ed.), Rand McNally Atlas of World History (Rand McNally, 1957).

Atlases of geopolitical flashpoints (maps of local territorial disputes):
*Andrew Boyd and Joshua Comenetz, An Atlas of World Affairs 11th edition (Routledge, 2007).
*Ewan W. Anderson, Global Geopolitical Flashpoints: An Atlas of Conflict (Routledge, 2000).
*Ewan W. Anderson, International Boundaries: A Geopolitical Atlas (Routledge, 2003).
*University of Durham International Boundaries Research Unit & Gideon Biger, The Encyclopedia of International Boundaries (Facts on File, 1995).

Geo-strategic atlases
*Richard Edes Harrison, Look at the World: The Fortune Atlas for World Strategy (Alfred A. Knopf, 1944)—this atlas should be consulted by every student of geopolitics!
*Richard D. Kelly, Jr. Strategic Maps (Robert E. Krieger Publishing Co., 1983) – an atlas workbook sold with the two volume work by Clark G. Reynolds, Command of the Sea: A History and Strategy of Maritime Empires.
*Richard Brooks (ed.), Atlas of World Military History (Barnes and Noble, 2000).

Regional atlases (for example, China):
*Denis Twitchett, The Times Atlas of China (Times Books 1974).
*State Planning Committee Chinese Academy of Sciences State Statistical Bureau National Bureau of Surveying and Mapping Institute of Geography Chinese Academy of Sciences and State Planning Committee (Editor), State Economic Information Center (Editor), National Economic Atlas of China (Oxford University Press, 1994).
*Albert Hermann, An Historical Atlas of China (Aldine, 1966).
*G. William Skinner, Skinner Regional Systems Analysis Dataverse (Regional Systems Analysis Project) — A geographic information system devoted to the analysis and display of socio-economic data for Late Imperial China.  Data and maps for Japan and France may also be found here.

Older atlases (maybe of considerable use when studying how conflicts where viewed contemporaneously): 
*G. F. Hudson and Marthe Rajchman, An Atlas of Far Eastern Politics (Faber and Faber Limited, 1938) –  Such a volume may be relevant to a study of the geopolitical origins of World War II.  

Thematic atlases:
*Andrew Wheatcroft, The World Atlas of Revolutions (Simon and Schuster, 1983).

Map and atlas collections online:
*David Rumsey Map Collection – an incredible collection of online maps, maritime charts, and atlases, arranged regionally, thematically, and by event.  
*Library of Congress – featured collections of maps and atlases. 
*Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection, University of Texas – a treasure trove of maps and atlases arranged thematically and geographically.
*Allison C. Meier, 15 Vintage Online Map Collections to Explore, August 15, 2016 – links to the resources mentioned above plus to the Harvard Map Collection, the National Geographic Society, and Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at Boston Public Library (for maps on the American Revolution).
*The University of Chicago, LUNA, a portal for browsing map collections online.
*The University of Maryland, Maps for University of Maryland History Professors, another portal for browsing map collections online.

Geographic Information Software packages:
*GIS Geography – a webpage that provides information on free GIS software packages.
*ESRI

Maps of streets and physical geography online:
*Google Earth, https://www.google.com/earth/

WHAT ELSE SHOULD YOU DO?

On a daily basis, you should elect to supplement your formal studies with exposure to one or more of these websites.  Some are free; others post articles behind a pay wall.
*STRATFOR (www.stratfor.com)
*The National Interest (www.nationalinterest.com)
*Geopolitical Monitor (https://www.geopoliticalmonitor.com/
*Geopolitical Intelligence Services (https://www.gisreportsonline.com/about.html
*StrategyPage (https://www.strategypage.com/default.aspx)
*Foreign Affairs (www.foreignaffiars.com
*DEBKAfile (https://www.debka.com)
*The Diplomat (https://thediplomat.com)
*Strategika (Hoover Institution) (https://www.hoover.org/publications/strategika
*Military History (Hoover Institution) (https://www.hoover.org/research-teams/military-historycontemporary-conflict-working-group
*Geopoliticus (Foreign Policy Research Institute) (https://www.fpri.org/geopoliticus/
*Geopolitical Futures (https://geopoliticalfutures.com)
*Rand Corporation (https://rand.org/topics/international-affairs.html)
*The Strategy Bridge (https://thestrategybridge.org/the-bridge-index)
*War on the Rocks (https://warontherocks.com)
*Small Wars Journal (https://smallwarsjournal.com)
*Long Wars Journal (https://longwarjournal.org)
*RealClearDefense (https://www.realcleardefense.com)
*Grand Strategy (RealClearPublicAffairs) (https://www.realclearpublicaffairs.com/public_affairs/grand_strategy/?utm_campaign=public_affairs_widget&utm_medium=defense&utm_source=homepage_right_column)
*Encyclopedia Geopolitica (https://encyclopediageopolitica.com)
*Western Way of War Podcast Series (https://rusi.org/projects/western-way-war-podcast-series)

If the cost of a subscription is an issue, then we suggest consulting the websites of independent research centers and/or government think tanks (such as those listed below).  These organizations often encourage their so-called “senior fellows” and affiliated professors to post geopolitical and national security analyses.  We suggest reading widely, certainly beyond your own national loyalties or ideological commitments, in order to appreciate how allied powers, client states, competitors and adversarial regimes view current events, historical trends, and unfolding conflicts.  

WHAT FOLLOWS?

What follows is a preliminary list of courses, majors and minors, and research institutes found in the United States and beyond.  Academic institutions have been selected to represent a variety of geographic locations and institutions, from small liberal arts universities to major research universities. Our goal is not to rank institutions, merely to begin the effort to compile what is available.  

Some programs listed below specialize in national security, others in intelligence analysis or international relations.  While all listed programs abut on geopolitical analysis or even claim to do geopolitical analysis, students should carefully examine each program to ascertain if there is actually a geopolitical or geographic component.  We have also tried to identify programs that are grounded in classical geopolitical thought and avoid those that privilege the sentiments of the observer over the facts (as in so-called “critical geopolitics”).  

Consumers beware: “Geopolitics” is a much-abused word even in academia!  Before registering for any program, a student should secure copies of the current curriculum and, whenever possible, the recent syllabi for courses that are potentially of interest.  That is just the beginning of your quest for relevant information.

In selecting a program, there is no substitute for granular research:  Does the program meet your needs?  Does it offer courses in a language in which you desire to become proficient?  Does it offer an area studies program in a region of the world that is of interest to you?  Students, especially students seeking to enroll in a master’s degree program, should review courses, required time to completion, and faculty interests before enrolling.  If at all possible, secure information on how long it usually takes to secure a certificate or an advanced degree and where recent graduates of the program secured employment.  Ask questions.  If answers are not forthcoming, think again.

This verification process is time consuming; however, you don’t want to end up enrolling in a program offered by an institution located in State College, PA, while imagining you were matriculating to a university (with almost the same name) in Philadelphia, PA, or vice versa. 

FINAL THOUGHTS:

Students and faculty may contact Professor Albert Chapman (chapmanb<at>purdue.edu) to have their courses and programs listed on this web page.  Exemplary syllabi may be posted from time to time; please send us your syllabi as we would like to post syllabi on the history of geopolitical thought, global and regional geopolitics, the geopolitics and grand strategy of various nation-states, the geopolitics of strategic commodities such as rare earths, and the new geopolitics of the Arctic, undersea terrains, cyber space and outer space, etc.  Such syllabi will provide students who are engaged in independent study with a guide to the literature.

Courses and degree programs appearing below are not endorsed by the Mackinder Forum, the authors of this document, or our affiliates.  What follows is merely a compilation of items gleaned from the internet.  Please know that we were surprised and delighted by the sheer number of relevant items that we uncovered.  Hopefully, we will learn of the existence of more courses and programs devoted to geopolitics, geoeconomics, geostrategy, strategic culture, and grand strategy.

This document should be of use as you explore available courses, educational programs and resources.

We also recommend consulting the following reference works for the definitions of geographic terms and for a guide to locations:
*Susan Mayhew, Oxford Dictionary of Geography (Oxford University Press, 2015).
*Alisdair Rogers, Noel Castree, and Rob Kitchin, Oxford Dictionary of Human Geography (Oxford University Press, 2013).
*Webster’s New Geographical Dictionary (Merriam Webster, 1988).

March 11, 2021

(Note:  The compilers of this document wish to thank Mr. Rodger Baker (of STRATFOR) and Professor Geoff Sloan (University of Reading, UK) for their timely and helpful comments.)

UNITED STATES:

A. Courses:

*Amherst College
Geopolitics and American Foreign Policy HIST – 215; POSC – 214
https://www.amherst.edu/academiclife/departments/courses/1718F/POSC/POSC-214-1718F 

*Brown University
POLS 18221 Geopolitics of Oil and Energy
https://watson.brown.edu/ir/courses

*Carnegie Mellon University: Institute for Politics and Strategy
Grand Strategy in the United States #84-680
https://www.cmu.edu/ips/courses/graduate-courses/84680.html

*College of William and Mary
Govt. 482 Seminar: “Geostrategic Thought” 
https://catalog.wm.edu/preview_entity.php?catoid=22&ent_oid=1452&returnto=3648

*Columbia University (& LSE)
Geopolitics GR8988
https://worldhistory.columbia.edu/content/geopolitics

*George Mason University
Seminar on Geoeconomics of U.S.-China Relations (Spring 2012)
https://cos.gmu.edu/ggs/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2015/04/GGS590_0072012Spring.pdf
Grand Strategy (Draft Syllabus) PUBP 504-003
https://schar.gmu.edu/sites/default/files/current-students/Courses/Fall-2020/PUBP/Zhang-PUBP-504-003-Fall-20.pdf

*Grand Valley State University
GPY 350 Geopolitics, Energy and Environment of Russia and Central Eurasia
https://www.gvsu.edu/catalog/course/gpy-350.htm

*Hertog Foundation
Foundations of Grand Strategy (Summer seminar)
https://hertogfoundation.org/courses/foundations-of-grand-strategy

*Hillsdale College
A free online course (requiring registration) devoted to Athens and Sparta
https://online.hillsdale.edu/landing/athens-and-sparta

*University of Pennsylvania
Global Strategic Leadership-Spring 2021: Generate Counterintuitive Ideas Around Changing Geopolitical Realities.
https://executiveeducation.wharton.upenn.edu/for-individuals/all-programs/global-strategic-leadership/ 
Epidemics, Natural Disasters, and Geopolitics: Managing Global Business and Financial Uncertainty
https://news.wharton.upenn.edu/press-releases/2020/03/wharton-school-launches-new-course-on-the-impact-and-implications-of-coronavirus-covid-19/

*Institute of World Politics (Washington, DC)
Chinese Grand Strategy: Foreign and Military Policy IWP 630
https://www.iwp.edu/courses/chinese-grand-strategy-foreign-and-military-policy/ 
Energy Security and the New Geopolitics of Energy
https://www.iwp.edu/courses/energy-security-and-the-new-geopolitics-of-energy/ 
Geopolitics in an Aerospace Age
https://www.iwp.edu/articles/2019/06/19/geopolitics-in-an-aerospace-age/ 
Islam and Geopolitics in Eurasia
https://www.iwp.edu/courses/islam-and-geopolitics-in-eurasia/ 
The Geopolitics of the Iranian Plateau and South Asia
http://www.iwp.edu/programs/course/the-geopolitics-of-the-iranian-plateau-and-south-asia

*Liberty University (online programs)
Introduction to Geopolitics and International Diplomacy
https://www.liberty.edu/online/courses/ppog506/

*Norwich University (Political Science)
PO 305 Geopolitics
https://catalog.norwich.edu/residentialprogramscatalog/collegeofliberalarts/politicalscience/

*Pepperdine University
MPP 670 War, Strategy, Democracy, & Politics (p. 56)
https://publicpolicy.pepperdine.edu/academics/content/catalog-full2020-2021.pdf

*Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Open Courseware
Comparative Grand Strategy and Military Doctrine
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/political-science/17-484-comparative-grand-strategy-and-military-doctrine-fall-2004/ 
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/political-science/17-484-comparative-grand-strategy-and-military-doctrine-fall-2004/syllabus/ 
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/political-science/17-484-comparative-grand-strategy-and-military-doctrine-fall-2004/calendar/ 
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/political-science/17-484-comparative-grand-strategy-and-military-doctrine-fall-2004/lecture-notes/ 
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/political-science/17-484-comparative-grand-strategy-and-military-doctrine-fall-2004/readings/ 
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/political-science/17-484-comparative-grand-strategy-and-military-doctrine-fall-2004/exams/ 
Reading Seminar in Social Science: The Geopolitics and Geoeconomics of Global Energy
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/political-science/17-906-reading-seminar-in-social-science-the-geopolitics-and-geoeconomics-of-global-energy-spring-2007/ 
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/political-science/17-906-reading-seminar-in-social-science-the-geopolitics-and-geoeconomics-of-global-energy-spring-2007/lecture-notes/ 
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/political-science/17-906-reading-seminar-in-social-science-the-geopolitics-and-geoeconomics-of-global-energy-spring-2007/syllabus/ 
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/political-science/17-906-reading-seminar-in-social- -the-geopolitics-and-geoeconomics-of-global-energy-spring-2007/exams/

*Rice University 
MGMT 611 Geopolitics of Energy
https://business.rice.edu/faculty-research/research/energy

*University of Kentucky
Patterson School of Diplomacy and International Commerce
DIP 750 Defense Statecraft
DIP 600 Seapower:  Theory and Practice
DIP 600 Airpower:  Theory and Practice
DIP 720 Economic Statecraft
https://www.uky.edu/pattersonschool/concentrations/international-security-and-intelligence

*U.S. Air Force Academy
Curriculum Handbook
https://www.usafa.edu/app/uploads/CHB.pdf
Foreign Area Studies Major
Soc Sci 311 Geopolitics – required course
Military and Strategic Studies (Major and Minor)
MSS 369 The Spectrum of Conflict
MSS 498 Capstone Course in Joint Strategy
MSS 421 International Power Projection

*U.S. Naval Academy 
Course Catalog 
https://www.usna.edu/Academics/Majors-and-Courses/Course-Catalog.php 
FP 310 Introduction to Global Strategic Studies
FP 476 Grand Strategy and Great-Power Politics

*Virginia Military Institute
IS 423W Studies in Grand Strategy
HI 355 Grand Strategy in the Twentieth Century
HI 391 Sea Power in the 20th Century 
https://catalog.vmi.edu/search_advanced.php?cur_cat_oid=1&search_database=Search&search_db=Search&cpage=1&ecpage=1&ppage=1&spage=1&tpage=1&location=33&filter%5Bkeyword%5D=grand+strategy

*Wheaton College (Wheaton, IL)  
ARCH 365 Statecraft and International Relations in the Ancient Near East
https://catalog.wheaton.edu/course-descriptions/arch/

*William and Mary
Gov 482 Geostrategic Thought
https://www.wm.edu/offices/registrar/documents/catalog/prioryearcatalogs/2006_2007ugcatalog.pdf

B. Majors, minors, and graduate degrees:

*Air War College
Master of Strategic Studies
https://www.airuniversity.af.edu/Portals/10/AWC/documents/Master_of_Strategic_Studies_Catalog_19AY20.pdf?ver=2019-10-10-163230-483

*Brigham Young University
Geospatial Intelligence
https://catalog.byu.edu/family-home-and-social-sciences/geography/geography-geospatial-intelligence-bs

*Carnegie Mellon University
Institute for Politics and Strategy
Minor in International Relations and Politics
https://www.cmu.edu/ips/undergraduate%20degrees/minors/minor-in-international-relations-and-politics.html

*Cranfield University
Strategic Trade Controls and Compliance
https://www.cranfield.ac.uk/courses/short/defence-and-security/strategic-trade-controls-and-compliance

*Columbia University and the London School of Economics
MA/MSc in International and World History
https://worldhistory.columbia.edu

*Columbia College
Military Studies, MAMS (AHE) – a program in geostrategy
http://catalog.ccis.edu/preview_program.php?catoid=5&poid=499&returnto=267

*Duke University
American Grand Strategy Program
https://ags.duke.edu/
American Grand Strategy Seminar
https://ags.duke.edu/courses/

*Florida Atlantic University (and STRATFOR)
Geopolitical Analysis Certificate
https://business.fau.edu/executive-education/professional-development/course-offerings/strategy/geopolitical-analysis-certificate/ 

*Florida International University
International Relations (undergraduate major)
https://pir.fiu.edu/undergraduate-programs/major-in-international-relations/

*Institute of World Politics (Washington, DC)
Master of Arts in Statecraft and National Security Affairs
https://www.iwp.edu/degrees/master-of-arts-in-statecraft-and-national-security-affairs/
Master of Arts in Statecraft and International Affairs
https://www.iwp.edu/degrees/master-of-arts-in-statecraft-and-international-affairs/ 
Certificate in International Politics
https://www.iwp.edu/degrees/certificate-in-international-politics
Certificate in National Security Affairs
https://www.iwp.edu/degrees/certificate-in-national-security-affairs/ 

*Johns Hopkins University
Program in Global Risk (M.A.)
https://risk.sais.jhu.edu/info-session/
SAIS
https://sais.jhu.edu/academics/degrees-programs

*Kansas State University
Military History
https://www.k-state.edu/history/specializations/militaryhistory.html
Security Studies Program
https://www.k-state.edu/securitystudies/

*Missouri State
Defense and Strategic Studies (Certificate, MS, DDSS)
https://www.missouristate.edu/Registrar/Catalog/dept_ds.html 
https://www.missouristate.edu/registrar/catalog/courses_ds.htm

*National Defense University Colleges
https://www.ndu.edu/Academics/Colleges/

*National Intelligence University
https://ni-u.edu/wp/academics/degrees/

*Northeastern University
Geospatial Services Program
https://pages.northeastern.edu/GCEGITPSCH201602_LPFA.html?utm_medium=search&utm_source=Google&utm_campaign=mofu-niche&utm_content=%7Bdevice%7D&campaign=Masters_in_GIT&adgroup=GIS_Online&keyword=%7Bkeyword%7D&gclid=EAIaIQobChMI5sL6msXs7gIVDKCzCh0YQgp7EAAYAyAAEgKdXfD_BwE&gclsrc=aw.ds

*Ohio State University
Mershon Center for International Security Studies
https://munkschool.utoronto.ca/

*Penn State (World Campus)
Online Graduate Degrees and Certificates in GIS, GEOINT, and Homeland Security
https://www.worldcampus.psu.edu/penn-state-online-gis-geoint-degrees

*Pepperdine University
Master of Public Policy Specializations (including International Relations & National Security)
https://publicpolicy.pepperdine.edu/master-public-policy/specializations/

*School for International Training (STUDY ABROAD PROGRAMS)
Geopolitics and Power
https://studyabroad.sit.edu/programs/?cgi=Geopolitics%20and%20Power
Mongolia and Siberia: Nomadism, Geopolitics and the Environment (deadline passed)
https://studyabroad.sit.edu/program/spring-2021-mongolia-and-siberia-nomadism-geopolitics-and-the-environment/
Geopolitics, International Relations and the Future of the Middle East
https://studyabroad.sit.edu/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/2018SFA-JOR-MDES3000.pdf

*Stanford University
Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies
https://fsi.stanford.edu/

*Temple University
Professional Science Master’s in Geospatial Data Science
https://www.cla.temple.edu/geographic-information-systems/psm-gds/

*Texas A&M University: Bush School of Government & Public Service
Masters of International Affairs:  https://bush.tamu.edu/inta/degrees/mia/courses/  & https://catalog.tamu.edu/pdf/2020-2021-graduate.pdf 
INTA 623 Grand Strategy
INTA 627 Foundations of Strategy and Statecraft
INTA 631 Military Power
MARA 610 Maritime Strategic Management
Undergraduate catalog:  https://catalog.tamu.edu/pdf/2020-2021-undergraduate.pdf

*Texas State University
Center for Geospatial Intelligence and Investigation
https://www.txstate.edu/gii/about/who-we-are.html

*The Citadel (Military College of South Carolina): Bachelor of Arts in Intelligence and Security Studies
https://www.citadel.edu/root/intelligence-and-security-studies-undergraduate-programs/bachelor-of-arts

*Tufts University 
Fletcher School: Master in Global Affairs
https://fletcher.tufts.edu 
DHP D264: Geopolitics of Energy in Eurasia
https://fletcher.tufts.edu/academics/courses/divisions/dhp/dhp-d264 
DHP H202: Maritime History and Globalization
https://fletcher.tufts.edu/academics/courses/divisions/dhp/dhp-h202 
DHP H241: Grand Strategies in History
https://fletcher.tufts.edu/academics/courses/divisions/dhp/dhp-h241 
DHP P 248: Strategy and Grand Strategy: Theory, Art and Practice
https://fletcher.tufts.edu/academics/courses/divisions/dhp/dhp-p248 
DHP P206M: Maritime Security
https://fletcher.tufts.edu/academics/courses/divisions/dhp/dhp-p206m
DHP P207: GIS for International Applications
https://fletcher.tufts.edu/academics/courses/divisions/dhp/dhp-p207 
DHP P 280 Eurasia:  Geopolitics, Religion, and Security
https://fletcher.tufts.edu/academics/courses/divisions/dhp/dhp-d264

*University of Georgia: Center for International Trade and Security, School of Public and International Affairs
https://spia.uga.edu/departments-centers/center-for-international-trade-and-security-cits/
Course Schedules: https://spia.uga.edu/departments-centers/department-of-international-affairs/courses/#graduate

*University of Kentucky
Patterson School of Diplomacy and International Commerce
https://www.uky.edu/pattersonschool/
International Security and Intelligence Concentration
https://www.uky.edu/pattersonschool/concentrations/international-security-and-intelligence 

*University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School of Business
Global Strategic Leadership-Spring 2021: “Generate counterintuitive ideas around changing geopolitical realities.”
https://executiveeducation.wharton.upenn.edu/for-individuals/all-programs/global-strategic-leadership/ 
“Epidemics, Natural Disasters, and Geopolitics: Managing Global Business and Financial Uncertainty.”
https://news.wharton.upenn.edu/press-releases/2020/03/wharton-school-launches-new-course-on-the-impact-and-implications-of-coronavirus-covid-19/

*University of Texas—Austin
Clements Center for National Security
https://www.clementscenter.org/

*University of Texas–Dallas
Graduate Certificate in Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT)
https://epps.utdallas.edu/degrees/graduate-certificate-in-geospatial-intelligence/

*U.S. Air University 
2020-2021 Academic Year Catalog
https://www.airuniversity.af.edu/Portals/10/AcademicAffairs/documents/2020-2021_AU_Catalog.pdf 
Master and Doctorate of Philosophy in Military Strategy
Master of Science in Airpower Strategy and Technology Integration
SAASS 632 Foundations of International Politics
SAASS 643 Strategy-to-Practice
RE 5513 Popular Geopolitics
RE 5515 Political Geography
RE 5517 The Reason Why: War Causation, Military Strategy and Command
RE 5551 The Russian Mind
RE 5557 The ‘Asia Rebalance in US Policy: Geopolitical Challenges
ISS 659A Comparative Geopolitics & Security
RE 5835 Interstellar Warfare
RE 5837 Spacepower Theory and Strategy
WS 5510 Warfare Studies 

*U.S. Army War College
Academic Program Guide
https://www.armywarcollege.edu/documents/Academic%20Program%20Guide.pdf
Resident Education Programs:
AA2200: Introduction to Strategic Studies
NS2200: Theory of War and Strategy (TWS)
LM2201: Strategic Leadership (SL)
NS2201: National Security Policy and Strategy (NSPS)
Distance Education Program:
DE2302: National Security Policy and Strategy (NSPS)
DE2303: War and Military Strategy
DE2304: Regional Issues and Interests

*U.S. Marine Corps University 
www.usmcu.edu/
SECDEF Strategic Thinkers Program
https://www.usmcu.edu/Academic-Programs/SECDEF-Strategic-Thinkers-Program/ 
CRSS Center for Regional and Security Studies
https://www.usmcu.edu/CRSS/

*U.S. Military Academy
https://courses.westpoint.edu/static/index.htm
EV478 2019-2 Military Geospatial Operations
https://courses.westpoint.edu/static/index.htm 
SS457: Grand Strategy (syllabus provided)
https://s3.amazonaws.com/usma-media/inline-images/academics/academic_departments/social_sciences/IA%20Program/IA%20Syllabi/Webpage_SS457_Syllabus_Spring_2020_0.pdf
Rupert H. Johnson Grand Strategy Program at West Point
https://www.westpoint.edu/academics/academic-departments/social-sciences/grand-strategy

*U.S. Naval War College 
Academics and Programs
https://usnwc.edu/Academics-and-Programs 
Strategy and Policy (A case study approach to strategy formation and implementation)
https://www.belfercenter.org/sites/default/files/2017-09/Toprani%202017%20SLC%20Syllabus.pdf 

*Yale University
Grand Strategy Course
https://grandstrategy.yale.edu/grand-strategy-course

C. Research institutes:

*Africa Center for Strategic Studies
https://africacenter.org

*Atlantic Council
https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/content-series/nato20-2020/revitalize-natos-grand-strategy/ 
Geoeconomics Center
https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/programs/geoeconomics-center/

*Brookings Institution 
https://www.brookings.edu/

*Carnegie Endowment for Peace
Geoeconomics and Strategy Program
https://carnegieendowment.org/programs/geoeconomicsandstrategy/ 
Russia and Eurasia Program
https://carnegieendowment.org/programs/russia/ 
Europe Program
https://carnegieendowment.org/programs/europe/ 
Middle east Program
https://carnegieendowment.org/programs/middleeast/ 
South Asia Program
https://carnegieendowment.org/programs/southasia/ 
Technology and Intranational Affairs Program
https://carnegieendowment.org/programs/technology/

*Carnegie Mellon University: Institute for Politics and Grand Strategy
https://www.cmu.edu/ips/index.html

*Cato Institute
Foreign Policy and National Security
https://www.cato.org/research/foreign-policy-national-security

*Center for International Maritime Security (CIMSEC)
http://cimsec.org/

*Center for Naval Analyses 
https://www.cna.org/

*Center for Strategic & Budgetary Assessments 
https://csbaonline.org/

*Center for Strategic and International Studies 
https://www.csis.org/ 
Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative
https://amti.csis.org/ 
China Power Microsite
https://chinapower.csis.org 
Taiwan
https://www.csis.org/programs/china-power-project/taiwan 
Russia and Eurasia Program
https://www.csis.org/programs/europe-russia-and-eurasia-program/russia-and-eurasia 
Ukraine
https://www.csis.org/programs/russia-and-eurasia-program/archives/ukraine 
Eastern Mediterranean and Turkey
https://www.csis.org/programs/europe-russia-and-eurasia-program/eastern-mediterranean-and-turkey 
Venezuela: Energy and Geopolitics
https://www.csis.org/podcasts/energy-360/venezuela-energy-and-geopolitics

*Columbia University / Harriman Institute
Russian, Eurasian, and East European Studies
Balkan Studies Program
https://harriman.columbia.edu/programs/balkan-studies-program

*Council on Foreign Relations 
https://www.cfr.org/  
Defense and Foreign Relations
https://www.cfr.org/defense-and-security 
Americas
https://world101.cfr.org/rotw/americas/geopolitics 
Asia
https://www.cfr.org/asia
Europe & Eurasia
https://www.cfr.org/defense-and-security?topics=All&regions=116&type=All 
Global Commons
https://www.cfr.org/global-commons 
Middle East & North Africa
https://www.cfr.org/sub-saharan-africa 
Oceania
https://www.cfr.org/oceania 
Sub-Saharan Africa
https://www.cfr.org/sub-saharan-africa

*Foreign Policy Research Institute (specializes in geopolitics)
https://www.fpri.org/ 
Research programs
https://www.fpri.org/research/

*German Marshall Fund
Security and Defense
https://www.gmfus.org/program/security-and-defense

*Heritage Foundation 
www.heritage.org/

*Hoover Institution
Foreign Affairs and National Security
https://www.hoover.org/research/foreign-affairs-national-security

*Hudson Institute 
https://www.hudson.org/research

*Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA)
https://www.ida.org/

*Institute for Science and International Security
https://www.isis-online.org

*Institute for the Study of War
www.understandingwar.org

*International Institute for Strategic Studies (Washington)
https://www.iiss.org/

•Jamestown Foundation
https://jamestown.org

*Kansas State Institute of Military History & 20th Century Studies
https://www.k-state.edu/history/institute/

*Middle East Institute
https://www.mei.edu

*Project 2049 Institute 
https://project2049.net/

*Rand Corporation 
https://www.rand.org/ 
RandReview
https://www.rand.org/blog/rand-review.html
International Affairs
https://www.rand.org/blog.topic.international-affairs.html
Rand War Games(i.e., geostrategic and geopolitical games to be played at home)
https://www.rand.org/blog/rand-review/2020/11/now-you-can-play-rand-games-at-home.html

*SAIS (Johns Hopkins University)
Transatlantic Security and Industry Program
https://sais.jhu.edu/news-press/sais-center-transatlantic-relations-launches-new-transatlantic-security-and-industry

*Stimson Institute
US Foreign Policy
https://www.stimson.org/us-foreign-policy/

*Triangle Institute for Security Studies (North Carolina)
https://tiss-nc.org/

*University of Pennsylvania
Wharton Political Risk Lab
https://riskcenter.wharton.upenn.edu/political-risk-lab/

*William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
Economy and Society Initiative (a project devoted to geoeconomics)
https://hewlett.org/newsroom/hewlett-foundation-announces-new-five-year-50-million-economy-and-society-initiative-to-support-growing-movement-to-replace-neoliberalism/

*Wilson Center
Security and Defense (Program)
https://www.wilsoncenter.org/issue/security-and-defense

D. Selected government information resources:

*Air University China Aerospace Studies Institute
https://www.airuniversity.af.edu/CASI/

*Congressional-Executive Commission on China 
https://www.cecc.gov/

*Library of Congress Maps 
https://loc.gov/maps/collections/

*NATO Cooperative Cybersecurity Center of Excellence 
https://ccdcoe.org/

*NATO Energy Security Centre of Excellence 
https://enseccoe.org/en

*NATO Strategic Communications Centre of Excellence 
https://ccdcoe.org/

*University of Texas-Austin Perry-Castaneda Library
Historic Maps
https://legacy.lib.utexas.edu/maps/

*U.S. Army War College Strategic Studies Institute
https://ssi.armywarcollege.edu/

*U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission 
https://www.uscc.gov/

*U.S. Central Intelligence Agency 
https://www.cia.gov/

*U.S. Coast Guard Academy Center for Arctic Study and Policy
https://www.uscga.edu/casp/

*U.S. Congressional Research Service (Library of Congress) 
https://crsreports.congress.gov/

*U.S. Department of Defense 
https://dod.defense.gov/

*U.S. Department of Defense Geographic Combatant Commands
https://www.defense.gov/Out-Story/Combatant-Commands/

*U.S. Energy Information Administration International  
https://www.eia.gov/international/overview/world/

*U.S. Geological Survey International Minerals 
https://www.usgs.gov/centers/nmic/international-minerals-statistics-and-information/

*US Department of State
 https://www.state.gov/

*U.S. Marine Corps University Center for Regional and Security Studies
https://www.usmcu.edu/CRSS/

*U.S. Marine Corps University Middle East Studies
https://www.usmcu.edu/mes/

*U.S. Naval War College China Maritime Studies Institute
https://usnwc.edu/Research-and-Wargaming/Research-Centers/China-Maritime-Studies-Institute

*U.S. Naval War College Russia Maritime Studies Institute
https://usnwc.edu/Research-and-Wargaming/Research-Centers/Russia-Maritime-Studies-Institute

*U.S. Office of the Director of National Intelligence 
https://www.odni.gov/

*U.S. Space Force
https://www.spaceforce.mil/

E. Government cartographic resources:

*Miami University — Guide to US Government Cartographic Offices
https://libguides.lib.miamioh.edu/c.php?g=22073&p=129911

UNITED KINGDOM, CANADA, AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND

A. Courses:

*Australian National University, Strategic and Defence Studies Centre
Making Grand Strategy STST8055
https://programsandcourses.anu.edu.au/2019/course/stst8055 
Modern Iraq: State, Politics and Society MEAS 3005
https://programsandcourses.anu.edu.au/2021/course/meas3005 
Geopolitics of Central Asia
https://programsandcourses.anu.edu.au/2020/course/MEAS4114 
Grand Strategies in the Asia-Pacific
https://programsandcourses.anu.edu.au/2014/course/stst8002

*Bond University
Geopolitics INTR11-101
https://bond.edu.au/intl/subject/intr11-101-geopolitics

*Centennial College
Geopolitics of Trade and Development INTL-703
https://www.centennialcollege.ca/programs-courses/full-time/course/comparative-geopolitical-systems/

*Defence Academy (United Kingdom)
https://www.da.mod.uk/

*Durham University: International Boundaries Research Unit
Introduction to International Boundaries: Definition, Delimitation and Dispute Resolution
https://www.dur.ac.uk/ibru/workshops/online/introtoboundaries/

*MacQuarie University (Sydney, Australia)
Geopolitics and Geostrategy – PICT860
http://handbook.mq.edu.au/2019/Units/PGUnit/PICT860

*Montreal Center for International Studies
Risk Analysis and Geopolitics
https://cerium.umontreal.ca/en/programs-of-study/summer-schools-2015/risk-analysis-and-geopolitics/

*Open Universities (Australia)
Geopolitics and Geostrategy
https://www.open.edu.au/subjects/macquarie-university-geopolitics-and-geostrategy-maq-picx8060

*SOAS University of London
Geopolitics and Security in Central Asia and the Caucasus
https://www.soas.ac.uk/courseunits/15PPOH023.html

*University of South Australia
International Policy and Geopolitics of Energy and Resources
https://study.unisa.edu.au/courses/166422

*University of Toronto
Munk School of Global Affairs and Public Policy
https://munkschool.utoronto.ca/

B. Majors, minors and graduate programs:

*Australian National University: College of Asia and the Pacific
Strategic Studies
https://asiapacific.anu.edu.au/students/gradcourse/strategic-studies

*Bircham International University
Geopolitics and Geostrategy (BA, MA, PhD – online programs)
https://www.bircham.edu/geopolitics-geostrategy.html  

*Canterbury Christ Church University
Human Geography by Research – MSC 
https://www.findamasters.com/masters-degrees/course/human-geography-by-research-msc/?i32d2710c57015
Cartography and Infographics by Research – MSc
https://www.findamasters.com/masters-degrees/course/cartography-and-infographics-by-research-msc/?i32d2710c57007

*King’s College London
Geopolitics, Resources and Territory MA
https://www.findamasters.com/masters-degrees/course/geopolitics-resources-and-territory-ma/?i132d2510c5721 
War Studies MA (School of Security Studies)
https://www.kcl.ac.uk/study/postgraduate/taught-courses/war-studies-ma
Defence Studies Research MPhil/PhD (School of Security Studies)
https://www.kcl.ac.uk/study/postgraduate/research-courses/defence-studies-research-mphil-phd 
War Studies Research MPhil/PhD (School of Security Studies)
https://www.kcl.ac.uk/study/postgraduate/research-courses/war-studies-research-mphil-phd

*London School of Economics and Political Science
Business, International Relations, and the Political Economy Online Certificate Course
https://www.onlinestudies.com/Business-International-Relations-and-the-Political-Economy-Online-Certificate-Course/United-Kingdom/London-School-of-Economics-and-Political-Science-(LSE)-(Get-Smarter-Creative)/  

*Queen Mary University of London
School of Politics and International Relations
MSc International Business and Politics
https://www.findamasters.com/masters-degrees/course/msc-international-business-and-politics/?i194d2164c21882 
School of Geography
MSc Development and International Business
https://www.findamasters.com/masters-degrees/course/msc-development-and-international-business/?i194d2158c47869

*Royal Holloway, University of London
MSc Global Futures: Geopolitics and Security
https://www.findamasters.com/masters-degrees/course/msc-global-futures-geopolitics-and-security/?i207d2075c63671

*SOAS University of London: Centre for International Studies and Diplomacy
MA Global Security and Strategy (Online)
https://www.findamasters.com/masters-degrees/course/ma-global-security-and-strategy-online/?i215d3628c56609

*University College Dublin
MA Geopolitics and the Global Economy
https://www.findamasters.com/masters-degrees/course/ma-geopolitics-and-the-global-economy/?i272d6304c25105

*University of Calgary
Centre for Military, Security, & Strategic Studies
https://arts.ucalgary.ca/centre-military-security-strategic-studies

*University of Dundee (Scotland)
MA Geopolitics
https://www.dundee.ac.uk/undergraduate/geopolitics

*University of Glasgow
Russian, East European and Eurasian Studies—MSC
https://www.findamasters.com/masters-degrees/course/russian-east-european-and-eurasian-studies-msc/?i307d4959c47695

*University of Hull
MA Strategy and International Security
https://www.hull.ac.uk/study/postgraduate/taught/strategy-and-international-security-ma

*University of London (SOAS)
Centre for International Studies and Diplomacy
https://www.soas.ac.uk/cisd/
MA Global Security and Strategy (Online)
https://www.onlinestudies.com/MA-Global-Security-and-Strategy-(Online)/United-Kingdom/SOAS/

*University of Sussex
Geopolitics and Grand Strategy—MA 
https://www.findamasters.com/masters-degrees/school-of-global-studies/?M00phWk0 
Global Political Economy—MA 
https://www.findamasters.com/masters-degrees/school-of-global-studies/?M00phWk0

*University of Toronto
Munk School of Global Affairs & Public Policy
https://munkschool.utoronto.ca/

C. Research institutes:

*Australia China Relations Institute
https://www.australiachinarelations.org

*Australian Institute for International Affairs
https://www.internationalaffairs.org.au/publications/

*Australian Strategic Policy Institute 
https://www.aspi.org.au/

*Cambridge University: Centre for Geopolitics
https://www.cfg.polis.cam.ac.uk

*Canadian Global Affairs Institute (CGAI) (Canada)
https://www.cgai.ca

*Human Security Centre
http://www.hscentre.org

*China Institute (University of Alberta)
https://www.ualberta.ca/china-institute/index.html

*Durham University: International Boundaries Research Unit
https://www.dur.ac.uk/ibru/

*Henry Jackson Society 
https://henryjacksonsociety.org/

*Institute for Policy Analysis of Conflict (Australia)
http://www.understandingconflict.org/en.html#what_we_cover

*International Institute for Strategic Studies (London)
https://www.iiss.org/

*Institute for Regional Security (Australia)
https://regionalsecurity.org.au

*King’s College London
Centre for Grand Strategy
https://www.kcl.ac.uk/research/kcl-centre-for-grand-strategy

*Loughborough University
Institute for Advanced Studies 
Arctic Geopolitics
https://www.lboro.ac.uk/research/ias/programmes/arcticgeopolitics/

*Lowy Institute 
https://www.lowyinstitute.org/

*Macdonald-Laurier Institute (MLI) (Canada)
https://www.macdonaldlaurier.ca

*New Zealand Institute of International Affairs
https://www.nziia.org.nz/new-zealand-international-review.aspx

*Oxford (University) Institute for Energy Studies 
https://www.oxfordenergy.org/

*The Mackenzie Institute (Canadian Security Matters)
https://mackenzieinstitute.com

*Victoria University of Wellington: Centre for Strategic Studies
https://www.wgtn.ac.nz/strategic-studies/publications-and-research

D. Selected government information resources:

*Australia Dept. of Defence 
https://www1.defence.gov.au/

*Australia Dept. of Foreign Affairs and International Trade 
https://www.dfat.gov.au/

*Australia Minerals 
http://australiaminerals.gov.au/

*Australia Parliamentary Library Research Publications 
https://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/search/summary/summary.w3p;adv=yes;orderBy=date-eFirst;query=Dataset%3Aprspub;resCount=Default

*Canada Dept. for National Defence
http://www.dnd.ca/

*Canada Library of Parliament Research Publications 
https://lop.parl.ca/sites/PublicWebsite/default/en_CA/ResearchPublications

*Canadian Security Intelligence Service 
https://www.canada.ca/en/security-intelligence-service.html

*Global Affairs Canada  
https://www.international.gc.ca/global-affairs-affaires-mondiales/home-accueil.aspx?lang=eng

*NATO Cooperative Cybersecurity Center of Excellence 
https://ccdcoe.org/

*NATO Energy Security Centre of Excellence 
https://enseccoe.org/en

*NATO Strategic Communications Centre of Excellence 
https://ccdcoe.org/

*Royal United Services Institute (RUSI) 
https://www.rusi.org/

*Royal Australian Navy Seapower Centre 
https://www.navy.gov.au/spc-a

*UK Foreign, Commonwealth, & Development Office 
https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/foreign-commonwealth-development-office

*UK Ministry of Defence-Development, Doctrine, & Concepts Centre 
https://www.gov.uk/government/groups/development-concepts-and-doctrine-centre

*UK Parliament Library Research Briefings 
https://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/

E. Government cartographic resources:

Australia
*National Map of Australia
NationalMap
*Geosciences Australia
https://www.ga.gov.au/data-pubs/maps
*National Library of Australia Maps
Maps | National Library of Australia (nla.gov.au)

Canada
*Canadian Government Open Maps
Open Maps | Open Government, Government of Canada
*Library and Archives Canada Maps, Charts, and Architectural Plans Collection: A Search Guide
https://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/maps-charts-plans/Pages/maps-charts-architectural-plans.aspx

New Zealand
*Land Information New Zealand
Maps | Land Information New Zealand (LINZ)
*National Library Cartographic Collection
Cartographic Collection | National Library of New Zealand (natlib.govt.nz)

United Kingdom
*National Archives Maps
Maps (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
*Ordnance Survey 
Ordnance Survey | See A Better Place
*British Geological Survey
Welcome to BGS – British Geological Survey

Global guide:
*Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_mapping_agency

EUROPEAN UNION

A. Courses

*American College of Greece
Geopolitical Developments, the West and the Islamic Challenge
https://www.acg.edu/graduate/professional-education/geopolitical-developments-the-west-and-the-islamic-challenge/

*American Graduate School in Paris
IRD-E-602 Strategy and Conflict Resolution
http://www.ags.edu/international-relations/degree-programs/graduate-course-catalog#conflict-resolution
IRD-E-501 Geopolitics
http://www.ags.edu/international-relations/degree-programs/graduate-course-catalog#geopolitics
IRD-E-502 Geopolitics of Religion
http://www.ags.edu/international-relations/degree-programs/graduate-course-catalog#geopolitics-of-religion

*Baltic Defence College (Estonia) 
https://www.baltdefcol.org/ 
Higher Command Studies Course 2021
https://www.baltdefcol.org/files/files/courseplans/HCSC/HCSC2021.pdf

*Bocconi University in collaboration with ISPI (Institute for International Politics Studies)
Geopolitics 
https://www.unibocconi.eu/wps/wcm/connect/bocconi/sitopubblico_en/navigation+tree/home/programs/current+students/campus+life/arts+and+humanities/geopolitics/geopolitics+home

*Corvinus University of Budapest
Contemporary Geopolitics around the World
Contemporary Issues of Geopolitics and Regional Development in the World
https://www.uni-corvinus.hu/main-page/programs/subjects-amp-courses/page/19/?lang=en 
Geopolitics and Geostrategies
Geopolitics and Geoeconomics
Energy Diplomacy (influence of geopolitics on energy security)
Geopolitics and Regional Development in the World
Geopolitics of China
https://www.uni-corvinus.hu/subjects/?subject_search_term=geopolitics&type%5B%5D=subject&lang=en

*DIS Copenhagen
Arctic Geopolitics
https://canvas.disabroad.org/courses/4016/assignments/syllabus?_ga=2.176237282.672876138.1610837158-285120013.1610837158

*Geneva Institute of Geopolitical Studies
Certificate Programmes in Geopolitics and Geoeconomics [NOTE: Geoeconomics is the study of how economic means may be deployed to secure geopolitical ends.]
https://geopolitics-geneva.ch
https://www.academiccourses.com/Geoconomics/Switzerland/Geneva-Institute-of-Geopolitical-Studies/

*Grenoble Ecole de Management
https://en.grenoble-em.com/geopolitics-understanding-and-acting-responsibility 
https://www.festivalgeopolitique.com

*Hertie School in Berlin
Geopolitics of Global Oil and Gas Markets
https://www.hertie-school.org/en/study/course-catalogue/course/course/geopolitics-of-global-oil-and-gas-markets

*Institut Barcelona Estudis Internacionals
International Relations, Geopolitics and Global Governance (Online course)
https://www.ibei.org/en/new-online-specialization-course-in-international-relations-geopolitics-and-global-governance-ibei-uoc_103401

*Neapolis University in Cyprus
ISR131 Geopolitics and Geoeconomics in the Eastern Mediterranean
https://www.bachelorstudies.com/Bachelor-of-Science-in-International-Relations-and-Security/Cyprus/Neapolis-University-Pafos/

*SciencesPo.
Geopolitics of Europe — free online course!
https://www.coursera.org/learn/geopolitics-europe

*UC Louvain
Introduction to Geopolitics LPOLS1319
https://uclouvain.be/en-cours-2020-lpols1319 

*Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona
Geopolitics and International Relations
https://www.studiesabroad.com/destinations/europe/spain/barcelona/international-studies-business–culture/ibrs1221/geopolitics-and-international-relations-466986

*Universidad Complutense de Madrid
609101 Geopolitics of Globalization
https://www.masterstudies.com//Masters-Degree-in-Political-Analysis/Spain/Universidad-Complutense-de-Madrid/ 

*Università degli Studi di Milano
Geopolitics
https://www.unimi.it/en/education/degree-programme-courses/2020/geopolitics-0

B. Majors, minors and graduate programs:

*Amsterdam University
Territories, Identities and Conflict in a Changing World Order (MA)
https://exploringgeopolitics.org/geopolitical-master-programs/

*Berlin School of Economics and Law
Masters Degree in Chinese-European Economics and Business Studies
https://www.findamasters.com/masters-degrees/course/chinese-european-economics-and-business-studies/?i456d5565c19399

*Charles University (Czech Republic)
Master in Geopolitical Studies
https://geopolitics.fsv.cuni.cz/GEO-3.html

*Ecole Militaire Collège Interarmées de Défense Geopolitics
https://web.archive.org/web/20080914010459/http://www.college.interarmees.defense.gouv.fr/spip.php?rubrique18

*Egmont Royal Institute for International Relations
Diplomacy and Foreign Affairs
https://www.egmontinstitute.be/training/tailored-courses-in-diplomacy-fa/ 
Security and Defence
https://www.egmontinstitute.be/training/courses-in-sec-def/

*Geneva Institute of Geopolitical Studies
Certificate Programmes in Geopolitics and Geoeconomics [NOTE: Geoeconomics is the study of how economic means may be deployed to secure geopolitical ends.]
https://geopolitics-geneva.ch
https://www.academiccourses.com/Geoconomics/Switzerland/Geneva-Institute-of-Geopolitical-Studies/

*Geneva School of Diplomacy and International Relations
https://genevadiplomacy.ch/

*HEC Paris
MSc in Geopolitics and Geo-economics of Emerging Africa
https://www.hec.edu/en/executive-education/executive-masters/msc-geopolitics-and-geo-economics-emerging-africa

*Institute for International Political Studies (Italy)
ISPI School
https://www.ispionline.it/en/ispi-school

*IRIS Sup’
BAC + 5 Geopolitics and Prospective
https://www.masterstudies.com/BAC-5-Geopolitics-and-Prospective/France/IRIS-Sup/?pk_vid=bec607c123c30a8a1610830988e89d9c 

*Kedge Business School (Marseille, Bordeaux and Paris)
MSc International Business (with systematic references to international & geopolitical issues)
https://www.findamasters.com/masters-degrees/course/msc-international-business/?i20d5021c60564

*L’Ecole de Guerre Economique
Online Economic Intelligence Certificate
https://www.onlinestudies.com/Online-Intelligence-Economic-Certificate/France/LEcole-de-Guerre-Economique/

*NATO Defence College 
https://www.ndc.nato.int/education/courses.php?icode=9 – on site courses
https://www.ndc.nato.int/education/courses.php?icode=15 – e-learning courses

*Netherlands Defence Academy
Military Strategic Studies Master Defence Programme
https://english.defensie.nl/topics/netherlands-defence-academy/military-strategic-studies-masters-degree

*Paris Academy of Geopolitics
http://english.academiedegeopolitiquedeparis.com/about-us/

*Queen’s University Belfast
Geopolitics MA
https://www.qub.ac.uk/courses/postgraduate-taught/geopolitics-pgdip/

*Radboud University
MSc in Conflicts, Territories and Identities
https://www.findamasters.com/masters-degrees/course/msc-in-conflicts-territories-and-identities/?i196d8505c36657

*SciencesPo
Certificate in International Affairs and Strategy
https://www.sciencespo.fr/college/en/academics/exchange/reims/international-affairs-strategy.html

*Società Italiana per l’Organizzazione Internazionale
Master in Economic Security, Geopolitics and Intelligence
https://www.sioi.org/en/activity/international-training-2/master-in-economic-security-geopolitics-and-intelligence/

*Sofia University (Bulgaria)
Master of Eu and Asia, Cultural Diplomacy and the Geopolitics of the EU
https://www.rocapply.com/study-in-bulgaria/bulgaria-universities/sofia-university/master-in-europe-and-asia-cultural-diplomacy-and-geopolitics-of-the-european-union.html

*Tampere University (Finland)
Master’s Degree Programme in Leadership for Change – European and Global Politics
https://www.masterstudies.ca/Masters-Degree-Programme-in-Leadership-for-Change-–-European-and-Global-Politics/Finland/Tampere-University/ 

*Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
Master in Geopolitics and Strategic Studies
https://www.uc3m.es/master/geopolitics

*Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore
International Relations and Global Affairs
https://international.unicatt.it/ucscinternational-international-relations-and-global-affairs-irga-program-curriculum  

*Universität der Bundeswehr-München
https://www.unibw.de/home-en

*University College Dublin
MA Geopolitics & the Global Economy
https://sisweb.ucd.ie/usis/!W_HU_MENU.P_PUBLISH?p_tag=PROG&MAJR=W262

*University of Groningen
Geopolitics and Connectivity track in MA in International Relations
https://www.rug.nl/masters/geopolitics-connectivity/?lang=en

*University of Luxembourg
*University of Lorraine (France)
*Saarland University (Germany)
*University of Kaiserslautern (Germany)
Master in Border Studies
https://www.masterstudies.com/Master-in-Border-Studies/Luxembourg/FLSHASE/

*University of Malta
Master of Arts in Ocean Governance
https://www.masterstudies.com/Master-of-Arts-in-Ocean-Governance/Malta/UniversityofMalta/

*Vesalius College
MA in Global Peace, Security and Strategic Studies
https://www.findamasters.com/masters-degrees/course/ma-in-global-peace-security-and-strategic-studies/?i1040d7735c55451

* Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Political Science: International Relations, Security and Global Order MSc
https://www.findamasters.com/masters-degrees/course/political-science-international-relations-security-and-global-order-msc/?i384d8544c63294

*War Studies University-Poland
https://www.wojsko-polskie.pl/aszwoj/

C. Research institutes:

*Albanian Institute for International Studies
https://www.aiis-albania.org/?q=foreign-policy-forum

*Barcelona Centre for International Affairs
https://www.cidob.org/

*Belgrade Centre for Security Policy
Center for Security Studies
https://css.ethz.ch/en/services/organizations/organization.html/13699

*Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Europe Center (Belgium)
https://carnegieeurope.eu

*Casimir Pulaski Foundation (Poland)
https://pulaski.pl/en/publications/

*Center for Security and Defense Studies Foundation (Hungary)
http://bhkka.hu/en/

*Center for Security Studies (Zurich)
https://css.ethz.ch/en/research/publications.html

*Centre d’études et de recherches internationales
https://www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/

*Centre for Geopolitical Studies (Lithuania)
http://www.geopolitika.lt/?artc=7

*Centre for International Relations (Poland)
https://csm.org.pl/en/

*Centre for Military Studies (University of Copenhagen, Denmark)
https://cms.polsci.ku.dk/english/publications/

*Centre for Security Studies BH (CSS) (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
http://css.ba/category/s12-projects/

*Centro Studi Internazionali (Italy)
https://www.cesi-italia.org 
Geoeconomics Program
https://www.cesi-italia.org/articoli/programmi/geoeconomia

*Clingendale: Netherlands Institute of International Relations
https://www.clingendael.org/nl

*Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) 
https://www.diis.dk/en

*Egmont Royal Institute for International Relations
https://www.egmontinstitute.be

*Elcano Royal Institute (Spain)
http://www.realinstitutoelcano.org/wps/portal/rielcano_en

*Estonian Foreign Policy Institute 
http://www.tepsa.eu/introducing-the-estonian-foreign-policy-institute/

*European Council on Foreign Relations
https://ecfr.eu/

*European Strategic Intelligence and Security Center (Belgium)
http://www.esisc.org/

*European Union Institute for Security Studies
https://www.iss.europa.eu

*Europeum Institute for European Policy (Czech Republic)
https://www.europeum.org/en/articles/?type=projekty

*Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique (France)
https://www.frstrategie.org/en

*French Institute of International Relations 
https://www.ifri.org/en/research

*French Institute for International and Strategic Affairs (IRIS)
https://www.iris-france.org/presentation-en/  

*Finnish Institute of International Affairs
https://www.fiia.fi/en/

*German Council on Foreign Relations
https://dgap.org/en 
Geo-economics Program
https://dgap.org/en/research/programs/geo-economics-program

*German Institute for International and Security Affairs
https://www.swp-berlin.org/en

*German Marshall Fund of the United States (Brussels, Belgium)
https://www.gmfus.org/offices/brussels

*Hellenic Foundation for European and Foreign Policy (Greece)
https://www.eliamep.gr/en/

*Institut Choiseul for International Politics and Geoeconomics (France)
https://www.choiseul.info/about/?lang=en

*Institut de Relations Internationales et Stratégiques
https://www.iris-france.org

*Institute for Foreign Affairs and Trade (Hungary)
https://kki.hu/en/about-the-institute/#

*Institute for International Political Studies (Italy)
https://www.ispionline.it/en/institute

*Institute for Security and International Studies (ISIS) (Bulgaria)
https://www.isis-bg.org/index1.html

*Institute of International and European Affairs (Ireland)
https://www.iiea.com 
Geopolitical Analysis
https://www.iiea.com/geopolitics/

*Institute of International Relations (Prague)
https://www.iir.cz/en/static/research-at-the-iir

*Institute of International Relations and Political Science-Vilnius University (Lithuania)  
https://www.vu.lt/en/scientific-report-2016/faculties-and-institutes/institute-of-international-relations-and-political-science

*Institute of International Relations
Vistula University
https://www.vistula.edu.pl/en/science-and-research/research-units/institute-of-international-relations

*International Centre for Black Sea Studies (Greece)
https://icbss.org

*International Centre for Defense and Security (Estonia)
https://icds.ee/en/

*Istituto Affari Internazionali (Italy)
https://www.iai.it/en

*Italian Institute of International Affairs
https://www.iai.it/en

*Latvian Institute of International Affairs
https://www.liia.lv/en/

*Mathias Corvinus Collegium
Geopolitical Centre
https://mcc.hu/en/international-relations-school

*Mercator Institute for Chinese Studies (Germany)
https://merics.org/en

*National Institute for Strategic Studies
https://niss.gov.ua/en/general-information

*Norwegian Institute of International Affairs 
https://www.nupi.no/en

*Peace Research Institute Oslo (Norway)
https://www.prio.org/Research/

*Polish Institute of International Affairs
https://www.euromesco.net/institute/pism-the-polish-institute-of-international-affairs/

*Prague Security Studies Institute
https://www.pssi.cz

*Razumkov Centre (Ukraine)
https://razumkov.org.ua/en/

*Research Center of the Slovak Foreign Policy Association
https://www.nonproliferation.eu/thinktanks-2/rcsfpa/

*Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (Sweden)
https://www.sipri.org

*Swedish Institute of International Affairs 
https://www.ui.se/english/

*Torino World Affairs Institute (Italy)
https://www.twai.it

*Warsaw Institute
https://warsawinstitute.org

D. Selected government information resources:

*Denmark Ministry of Defence 
https://fmn.dk/en/

*Denmark Ministry of Foreign Affairs 
https://um.dk/

*Estonia Ministry of Defence 
https://kaitseministeerium.ee/en

*Estonia Ministry of Foreign Affairs 
https://vm.ee/en

*European Union Institute for Security Studies 
https://www.iss.europa.eu/

*Finland Ministry of Defence 
https://www.defmin.fi/en

*Finland Ministry of Foreign Affairs 
https://um.fi/frontpage

*France Ministry for European and Foreign Affairs 
https://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/

*France Ministry of Defense 
https://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/

*Germany Federal Ministry of Defense
https://www.bmvg.de/en

*Germany Foreign Office 
https://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/en

*Institut de Recherche Stratégique de L’Ecole Militaire (France)
https://www.irsem.fr

*Institute for Foreign Affairs and Trade (Hungary)
https://www.euromesco.net/institute/ifat-the-institute-for-foreign-affairs-and-trade/

*Italy Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation
https://www.esteri.it/mae/en

*Latvia Ministry of Defence 
https://www.mod.gov.lv/en

*Latvia Ministry of Foreign Affairs
https://www.mfa.gov.lv/en/

*Lithuania Ministry of Foreign Affairs
http://www.urm.lt/default/en/

*Lithuania Ministry of National Defence
http://kam.lit.en/

*Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
https://www.osce.org

*North Atlantic Treaty Organization
https://www.nato.int/

*NATO Cooperative Cybersecurity Center of Excellence 
https://ccdcoe.org/

*NATO Energy Security Centre of Excellence 
https://enseccoe.org/en

*NATO Strategic Communications Centre of Excellence 
https://ccdcoe.org/

*Norway Ministry of Defence  
https://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/fd/id380/

*Norway Ministry of Foreign Affairs 
https://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/ud/id833/

*Poland Foreign Ministry 
https://www.gov.pl/web/diplomacy

*Poland Ministry of National Defence 
https://www.gov.pl/web/national-defence

*Spain Ministry of Foreign Affairs, European Union, and Cooperation
http://www.exteriores.gob.es/Portal/en/Ministerio/Paginas/inicio.aspx

*Sweden Ministry of Defence 
https://www.government.se/government-of-sweden/ministry-of-defence/

*Sweden Ministry of Foreign Affairs 
https://www.government.se/government-of-sweden/ministry-for-foreign-affairs/

*Switzerland Federal Department of Foreign Affairs 
https://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/fdfa.html

E. Government cartographic resources:

France
*French Geological Survey, French geological survey | BRGM
*France National Library Maps, Cartes | Gallica (bnf.fr)

Germany
*Library of Congress Maps, https://www.loc.gov/maps/?q=germany
*Federal Institute for Geoscience & Natural Resources, BGR – Homepage (bund.de)
*German National Library Maps DNB – Kartensammlung

Global guide:
*Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_mapping_agency

RUSSIA & CENTRAL ASIA

A. Courses:

*National Research University, Higher School of Economics
“Introduction to Contemporary Geopolitics”
https://www.coursera.org/learn/contemprorary-geopolitics
“Geopolitics of Europe” – MOOC
https://www.coursera.org/learn/geopolitics-europe

B. Majors, minors, and graduate programs:

*Institute of post-Soviet and inter-Regional Studies, jointly with the University Paris-8.
History and Geopolitics of the Modern (post-Soviet States)
https://www.rsuh.ru/en/programs-courses/history-and-geopolitics-of-the-modern/

*Moscow State Institute of International Relations (Russia) – Bachelor & Master Degree Programs
https://english.mgimo.ru/education/master

C. Research institutes:

*Afghan Institute for Strategic Studies
https://www.aiss.af

*Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
International Center for the Strategic Research
https://www.kaznu.kz/en/20233/page/

*Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Moscow Center (Russia)
https://carnegie.ru/?lang=en

*Center for International and Regional Policy (CIRP) (Russia)
http://www.cirp.ru/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=8&Itemid=4

*Center for Spatial Analysis in International Relations
MGIMO University (Russia)
https://english.mgimo.ru/structure/scientific-deps/iis/geo

*Central Asia Institute for Strategic Studies
https://caiss.expert/

*Institute of World Economy and International Relations (Russia)
https://www.imemo.ru/en/

*Institute for International Studies
MGIMO University (Russia)
https://english.mgimo.ru/structure/scientific-deps/iis

*Institute for U.S. and Canadian Studies-Russian Academy of Sciences 
http://iskran.ru/en/homepage/

*Institute of Strategic and Interregional Researches [sic] (under the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan)
https://www.goldenpages.uz/en/company/?Id=46739

D. Selected government information resources:

(Use Russian government information resources with extreme caution!)

*Center for Strategic Studies under the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan (SAM)
https://samazerbaijan.wixsite.com/samaz/research-blog

*Kazakhstan Institute for Strategic Studies (operates under the office of the President)
http://www.kisi.kz/index.php/en/

*Russian Ministry of Defense
http://eng.mil.ru/

*Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs 
http://government.ru/en/department/92/events/

E. Government cartographic resources:

Russia
*Library of Congress Russia Maps, Map, Available Online, Russia | Library of Congress (loc.gov)
*Russian Geological Research Institute, Russian Geological Research Institute (VSEGEI)
*National Library of Russia Maps Collection, Maps Collection. National Library of Russia. Description. Maps (nlr.ru)
*State Archives Russian Federation, Государственный архив Российской Федерации – ГАРФ – Главная страница (statearchive.ru)
*Russian/Soviet Military Topographic Maps Collection (1883-1947) Courtesy:  Indiana University Libraries  https://webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/images/splash.htm?scope=images/VAC9619 
(Use Russian government maps with caution.)

Global guide:
*Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_mapping_agency

CHINA

A. Courses:

B. Majors, minors and graduate programs:

C. Research institutes:

*China Defense Universities Tracker (Courtesy:  Australian Strategic Policy Institute) 
https://www.aspi.org.au/report/china-defence-universities-tracker

*China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations
http://www.cicir.ac.cn/NEW/en-us/aboutus.html

*Guangdong Institute for International Strategies
https://giis.gdufs.edu.cn/info/1483/7719.htm

*Institute of International and Strategic Studies (Peking University)
http://en.iiss.pku.edu.cn

*Shanghai Institutes for International Studies
http://www.siis.org.cn/EnIndex

D. Selected government resources:

(Use Chinese government information resources with extreme caution!)

*China Institute of International Studies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
http://www.ciis.org.cn/english/

*Maritime Safety Administration
https://www.msa.gov.cn/

*Ministry of National Defense 
http://eng.mod.gov.cn/

*Ministry of Foreign Affairs 
https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/

E. Government cartographic resources:

China
*China Library of Congress Maps, Map, Available Online, China | Library of Congress (loc.gov)
*China Geological Survey, China Geological Survey (cgs.gov.cn)
*National Library of China National Library of China (nlc.cn) 
(Exercise usual caution when deploying Chinese govt. resources.)

Global guide:
*Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_mapping_agency

JAPAN, SOUTH KOREA, TAIWAN, SINGAPORE, SOUTH EAST ASIA & SOUTH PACIFIC

A. Courses:

*University of Fiji
The Geopolitics of the South Pacific
https://www.unifiji.ac.fj/master-of-international-relations-and-diplomacy/

*University of Cambodia
INT312: Geopolitics of Resources
https://uc.edu.kh/ucb/3/2019-08-29%2010:07:17/13/

*Victory Junior College
Geopolitics: Geographies of War and Peace (H3 NUS)
https://search.geebeeworld.com/search/Singapore-All-Geopolitics

B. Majors, minors, graduate programs:

*Center for International Relations and Strategic Studies (Certificate)
Philippines Foreign Service Institute
https://www.fsi.gov.ph/center-for-international-relations-and-strategic-studies/

*S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS), Singapore
MSc International Political Economy
MSc International Relations
MSc Strategic Studies
https://www.rsis.edu.sg/gpo/graduate-programmes/overview/#.YBHolC1h10s

C. Research institutes:

*The Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia Pacific (CSCAP) – Malaysia 
http://www.cscap.org

*Canon Institute for Global Affairs
Foreign Affairs and National Security
https://cigs.canon/en/security/

*East Asian Institute
National University of Singapore
https://research.nus.edu.sg/eai/

*Institute of Foreign Affairs and National Security (Republic of Korea Ministry of Foreign Affairs & Trade)
https://www.ifans.go.kr/knda/ifans/eng/stac/DplmIntroList.do

*Institute for National Defense and Security Research (INDSR) – Taiwan
https://indsr.org.tw/en

*Institute for National Security Strategy (South Korea)
http://www.inss.re.kr/main/main.do

*Institute of Strategic and International Studies (Malaysia)
International Security Program
https://www.isis.org.my/tag/international-security/

*International Institute for Strategic Studies (Singapore)
https://www.iiss.org/

*ISEAS – Yusof Ishak Institute – Singapore
Regional Strategic and Political Studies
https://www.iseas.edu.sg/programmes/regional-strategic-political-studies/

*Japan Institute of International Affairs 
https://www2.jiia.or.jp/en/

*Korea Institute for Defense Analyses (South Korea)
https://www.kida.re.kr/index.do?lang=en

*Korea Institute for International Economic Policy (South Korea)
http://www.kiep.go.kr/eng/index.do

*Korea Institute for National Unification (South Korea) 
https://www.kinu.or.kr/main/eng

*Nanyang Technological University (NTU)
Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies (IDSS)
https://www.rsis.edu.sg/research/idss/about-the-centre/about-the-institute-of-defence-and-strategic-studies-idss/

*National Defense College of the Philippines
http://www.ndcp.edu.ph/ 
Research Agenda 2020-2022 
http://www.ndcp.edu.ph/TRANSPARENCY%20-%20PDF%20FILES/Research%20Agenda/RESEARCH%20AGENDA%20(1).pdf

*National Defense University Taiwan
https://www.ndu.edu.tw/?Lang=en

*National University of Singapore
Max Weber Stiftung (MWS): “Borders, Mobility and New Transnational Infrastructures”
Belt and Road Initiative
https://fass.nus.edu.sg/belt-and-road-initiative-bri-cluster/

*Prospect Foundation (Taiwan)
https://www.pf.org.tw/masterpage-pfen

D. Selected government information resources:

*Indonesia Foreign Ministry
https://kemlu.go.id/portal/en

*Korean Institute for Defense Analysis
https://www.kida.re.kr/frt/board/frtNormalBoard.do?sidx=2327&depth=2

*Malaysia Ministry of Defence
http://mod.gov.my/ms/

*Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force  
https://www.mod.go.jp/msdf/en/

*Japan Ministry of Defense 
https://www.mod.go.jp/e/

*Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs 
https://www.mofa.go.jp/

*Japan National Institute of Defense Studies 
http://www.mids.mod.go.jp/english/

*Malaysia Ministry of Foreign Affairs
https://www.kln.gov.my/

*Philippines Dept. of Foreign Affairs 
https://dfa.gov.ph/

*Philippines Dept. of National Defense 
https://www.dnd.gov.ph/

*Singapore Ministry of Defence 
https://www.mindef.gov.sg/web/portal/mindef/home

*Singapore Ministry of Foreign Affairs 
https://www.mfa.gov.sg/

*South Korea Ministry of Foreign Affairs
http://www.mofa.go.kr/eng.index.do

*South Korea Ministry of National Defense
https://www.mdn.go.kr/mbshome/mbs/mnd/index.jsp

*Taiwan Ministry of Foreign Affairs
https://en.mofa.gov.tw/

*Taiwan Ministry of National Defense
https://www.mnd.gov.tw/english/

E. Government cartographic resources:

Indonesia
*National Geospatial Agency, Beranda (big.go.id)
*National Library of Indonesia, Perpustakaan Nasional Republik Indonesia (perpusnas.go.id) (Click at Indonesiana)
*Indonesia National Archives Arsip Nasional Republik Indonesia (anri.go.id)

Japan
*Geospatial Information Authority, Geospatial Information Authority of Japan – Government initiatives|Office of Policy Planning and Coordination on Territory and Sovereignty (cas.go.jp)
*National Diet Library Digital Collections Maps, NDL Digital Collections – Search result
*Japan National Archives Classic Maps, Genroku Kuniezu (archives.go.jp)

Singapore
*National Archives of Singapore, www.nas.gov/sg/
*Earth Observatory of Singapore, Earth Observatory of Singapore | Research on Volcano, Earthquake, Tsunami and Climate Change Science
*Ministry of Sustainability & the Environment, Home – MSE

South Korea
*National Atlas of Korea, 대한민국 국가지도집 (ngii.go.kr)
*National Library of Korea Digitized Materials, National Library>Search>Digitized Materials (nl.go.kr)
*National Archives of Korea, National Archives of Korea

Global guide:
*Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_mapping_agency

SOUTH ASIA: INDIA, SRI LANKA, PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH, & NEPAL

A. Courses:

B. Majors, minors, and graduate programs:

*Manipal Academy of Higher Education—India
Department of Geopolitics and International Relations (M.A.)
https://manipal.edu/gir.html

*National Defense College-India 
https://ndc.nic.in/index.aspx

*National Defense University-Pakistan
https://www.ndu.edu.pk/

C. Research institutes:

*Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies (BIISS)
https://www.biiss.org/content/research-interests-1

*Centre for Air Power Studies (India)
http://capsindia.org/

*Centre for Land Warfare Studies (India)
https://www.claws.in/

*Gateway House: Indian Council on Global Relations (India)
https://www.gatewayhouse.in

*Indian Council on World Affairs
India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs
https://www.icwa.in/show_content.php?lang=1&level=2&ls_id=1193&lid=453 
https://journals.sagepub.com/home/iqq

*Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies (India)
http://www.icps.org/

*Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses
Strategic Analysis (a monthly publication)
https://www.idsa-india.org/an-content.htm 
Asian Strategic Review (an annual publication)
https://www.idsa-india.org/asr-content.htm

*National Maritime Foundation (India)
https://maritimeindia.org/

*Pakistan Institute of International Affairs 
https://www.facebook.com/pages/category/Nonprofit-Organization/The-Pakistan-Institute-of-International-Affairs-448420922355356/

D. Selected government information resources:

*India Ministry of Defence
https://www.mod.gov.in/

*India Ministry of External Affairs
https://www.mea.gov.in/

*India Parliamentary Library Reference Notes
http://parliamentlibraryindia.nic.in/reference_notes.aspx

*Institute of National Security Studies (INSS) – Sri Lanka
http://www.insssl.lk/#

*Pakistan Ministry of Defence
http://www.mod.gov.pk/

*Pakistan Ministry of Foreign Affairs
http://mofa.gov.pk/

E. Government cartographic resources:

India
*Dept. of Science & Technology Survey of India maps, https://surveyofindia.gov.in/
*Geological Survey of India, Geological Survey of India – Home (gsi.gov.in)
*National Archives of India Cartographic Records, Cartographic Records | National Archives of India | Govt. of India

Global guide:
*Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_mapping_agency

AFRICA

A. Courses

*Addis Ababa University
Geopolitics PSIR 4441
http://www.aau.edu.et/css/courses/

*Al Akhawayn University (in Ifranee, Morocco)
INS 5311 Geopolitics
https://www.masterstudies.com/Master-of-Arts-in-International-Studies-and-Diplomacy-(MAISD)/Morocco/Al-Akhawayn-University-(in-Ifrane)/

*American University in Cairo
Strategic Theory
http://www1.aucegypt.edu/catalog/gradstud/grfields/gPoliticalScience/Political_Science/political_science_12.html

*Stellenbosch University (South Africa)
Department of Military Strategy
http://ww.sun.ac.za/english/faculty/milscience/schools/security-and-africa-studies/department-of-military-strategy 
214 Study of Strategic Thought and Warfare
744 Advanced Study of Military and Operational Strategy

*United States International University—Africa (Nairobi, Kenya)
IRL 4010 Geopolitics
IRL 4045 Security Studies and Strategy
https://www.usiu.ac.ke/assets/file/brochures/BA%20International%20Relations.pdf

B. Majors, minors, and graduate programs:

C. Research institutes:

*The Institute for Security Studies (South Africa, Ethiopia, Senegal, and Kenya)
https://issafrica.org/

*The Institute for Security Studies—Maritime Security
https://issafrica.org/topics-regions/search?topics=379&regions=

*Nigerian Institute of International Affairs (NIIA) (Nigeria)
https://niia.gov.ng

*South African Institute of International Affairs (SAIIA) (South Africa)
https://saiia.org.za/thematic-area/foreign-policy/

D. Selected government information resources:

*South Africa Department of Defence 
http://www.dod.mil.za/

*South Africa Department of International Relations and Cooperation 
http://www.dirco.gov.za/

*South Africa Department of Mineral Resources 
https://www.dmr.gov.za/

E. Government cartographic resources:

South Africa
*Department of Rural Development and Land Reform National Geospatial Information, Maps and Geospatial Information (ngi.gov.za)
*National Library of South Africa, NLSA – National Library of South Africa
*National Archives of South Africa, Welcome to the National Archives Website. Dear all, until further notice the NARSSA Reading Room will be open for the public every weekday from 9:00 to 14:00. | NARSSA
*Council for Geoscience, Home (geoscience.org.za)

Global guide:
*Wikpedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_mapping_agency

MIDDLE EAST

A. Courses:

*The Open University of Israel
War and Strategy 10390
https://www-e.openu.ac.il/courses/10390.htm

B. Majors, minors, graduate programs:

*American University in the Emirates (MA)
Master of Security Studies and Information Analysis
https://www.masterstudies.com/Master-of-Security-Studies-and-Information-Analysis/United-Arab-Emirates/American-University-In-the-Emirates/ 

*Emirates Diplomatic Academy
https://eda.ac.ae

*Holy Spirit University of Kaslik
Certificate in Geopolitics of Lebanon and the Middle East
https://www.usek.edu.lb/en/latin-american-studies-and-cultures-center/certificate-in-geopolitics-of-lebanon-and-the-middle-east 
https://www.usek.edu.lb/en/department-of-political-sciences/online-certificate-in-geopolitics-of-lebanon-and-the-middle-east-2

*Lauder School for Government, Diplomacy, and Strategy-IDC Center-Herzliya (Israel)
https://www.idc.ac.il/en/schools/government/pages/home.aspx 
Global Affairs and Conflict Resolution Cluster (BA)
https://www.idc.ac.il/en/schools/rris/undergraduate/pages/global-conflict.aspx 
Counter Terrorism and Homeland Security (BA & MA)
https://www.idc.ac.il/en/schools/rris/undergraduate/pages/counter-terrorism.aspx
https://www.idc.ac.il/en/schools/rris/graduate/pages/counter-homeland.aspx
Diplomacy & Conflict Studies (MA)
https://www.idc.ac.il/en/schools/rris/graduate/pages/diplomacy-conflict.aspx

*Lebanese Canadian University
Master’s program in Strategic and Diplomatic Studies
https://www.lcu.edu.lb/lcu/index.aspx?MM=11&SMM=24&SSMM=40

*Tel Aviv University
International MA in Security and Diplomacy
https://secdip.tau.ac.il/courses

C. Research institutes:

*Al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies (Egypt)
https://web.archive.org/web/20080620200950/http://acpss.ahram.org.eg/eng/ahram/2004/7/5/Abot0.htm

*Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies (Israel)
https://besacenter.org/

*Center for Strategic Research (Turkey)
http://sam.gov.tr/about.en.mfa

*Centre for Economics and Foreign Policy Studies (Turkey)
https://edam.org.tr/en/

*Egyptian Council for Foreign Affairs (Egypt)
https://ecfa-egypt.org/#

*Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research (United Arab Emirates)
https://www.ecssr.ae/en/

*Carnegie Middle East Center (Lebanon)
https://carnegie-mec.org/?lang=en

*Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research
https://www.ecssr.ae/en/

*International Institute for Counter-Terrorism (Israel)
http://www.ict.org.il/#gsc.tab=0

*Institute for National Security Studies (Israel)
https://www.inss.org.il/

*International Institute for Counterterrorism (Israel)
http://www.ict.org.il/#gsc.tab=0

*International Institute for Strategic Studies (Bahrain) 
https://www.iiss.org/

*International Strategic Research Organization (Turkey)
https://www.ciaonet.org/institutions/898

*Jerusalem Institute for Strategic Studies Organization (Israel)
https://www.jns.org/organization/jiss/

*Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (Israel)
https://jiss.org.il/en/

*Mitvim – Israeli Institute for Regional Foreign Policies
https://mitvim.org.il/en/

*Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies (Israel)
https://dayan.org/

*National Defense University (Turkey)
https://msu.edu/tr/eng/default.aspx

*Rasanah: International Institute for Iranian Studies
https://rasanah-iiis.org/english/

*Royal Institute for Strategic Studies (Morocco)
https://www.ires.ma/en/publications-english.html

*Tunisian Institute for Strategic Studies (Tunisia)
http://www.ites.tn

D. Selected government information resources:

*Egypt Armed Forces Ministry of Defense
https://www.mod.gov.eg/ModWebSite/Default.aspx

*Israel Defense Forces (IDF)
https://www.idf.il/en/

*Jordan Ministry of Foreign Affairs
https://www.mfa.gov.jo/

*Ministry of Defense (Israel)
https://english.mod.gov.il/Pages/default.aspx

*Ministry of Defence (United Arab Emirates)
https://mod.gov.ae/

*Ministry of Energy (Saudi Arabia)
https://www.moenergy.gov.sa/arabic/Pages/default.aspx

*Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Israel)
https://mfa.gov.il/MFA/Pages/default.aspx

*Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Saudi Arabia)
https://www.mofa.gov.sa/sites/mofaen/pages/default.aspx

*Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation (United Arab Emirates)
https://www.mofaic.gov.ae/

E. Government cartographic resources:

Israel
*Israel In Maps, https://mfa.gov.il/mfa/aboutisrael/maps/pages/israel%20in%20maps.aspx
*Ministry of Foreign Affairs, https://www.govmap.gov.il/?c=204000,595000&z=0 – NB: Appears to be in Hebrew only.
*Center for Israel Education, https://israeled.org/resources/maps/
*Geological Survey of Israel, Geological survey of Israel (www.gov.il)
*Israel National Library Eran Laor Cartographic Collection, The Eran Laor Cartographic Collection (nli.org.il)

Turkey
*Library of Congress Turkey Maps, Search results for Map, Turkey, Available Online | Library of Congress (loc.gov)
*Ministry of National Defense General Directorate of Mapping, GDM | General Directorate of Mapping – National Mapping Agency (harita.gov.tr)
*General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (mta.gov.tr)
*Turkey National Library, Milli Kütüphane | National Library of Turkey (millikutuphane.gov.tr)

Global guide:
*Wikpedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_mapping_agency

LATIN AMERICA

A. Courses:

*Universidad Galileo de Guatemala
Modern Geopolitics
https://www.bachelorstudies.com/Degree-in-Diplomacy-and-International-Relations/Guatemala/Universidad-Galileo-de-Guatemala/

*Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina
American Geopolitics PEL79*S-4; Professor: Mag. Rubén Rodríguez
https://www.academiccourses.com/Course-in-American-Geopolitics/Argentina/PUCA/

B. Majors, minors and graduate programs:

C. Research institutes:

*Latin American Security and Defence Network
https://www.resdal.org/ing/index.html

*National Academy of Political and Strategic Studies (Chile)
https://anepe.cl/

D. Selected government information resources:

*Argentina Ministry of Defense  
https://www.argentina.gob.ar/defensa

*Argentina Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Trade, and Worship 
https://www.cancilleria.gob.ar/en

*Argentina Ministry of Productive Development  
https://www.argentina.gob.ar/produccion

*Brazil Defense Ministry
https://www.gov.br/defesa/pt-br

*Brazil Foreign Ministry 
https://www.gov.br/mre/pt-br

*Brazil Ministry of Mines and Energy 
https://www.gov.br/mme/pt-br

*Chile Foreign Ministry 
https://www.gob.cl/en/ministries/ministry-of-foreign-affairs/

*Chile Ministry of Mining
https://www.minmineria.cl/

*Chile Ministry of National Defense 
https://www.gob.cl/en/ministries/ministry-of-national-defense/

*Conference of Defense Ministers of the Americas
https://www.cmda-info.net/compendio-sar

E. Government cartographic resources:

Brazil
*Geological Survey, Geological Survey of Brazil (cprm.gov.br)
*Brazilian National Library Cartography, Cartography | Biblioteca Nacional (bn.gov.br)

Mexico
*Library of Congress Maps, Search results for Map, Mexico, Available Online | Library of Congress (loc.gov)
*Mexican Geological Survey, Geology (sgm.gob.mx)
*National Library of Mexico, Biblioteca Nacional de México (unam.mx)

Global guide:
*Wikpedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_mapping_agency