Category Archives: Online Journal

The Ukrainian Crisis, Part I: Weighed in the Balance

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James D. Hardy, Jr., PhD and Leonard J. Hochberg, PhD When the Russians moved into the Crimea, pundits and politicians, including Hillary Clinton, commented that the reasons given by Vladimir Putin for the invasion were the same as those used by Adolph Hitler at Munich in 1938.  Ethnic Russians (Germans) were… Read more »

At Play in Mackinder’s World: A Cartographic Essay by Robert Aguirre

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“As we consider this rapid review of the broader currents of history, does not a certain persistence of geographical relationship become evident? Is not the pivot region of the world’s politics that vast area of Euro-Asia which is inaccessible to ships, but in antiquity lay open to the horse-riding nomads,… Read more »

Winning the War; Losing the Peace: When Victory is Tantamount to Defeat

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by James D. Hardy, Jr., PhD, Leonard Hochberg, PhD and Geoffrey Sloan, PhD Introduction The Twentieth Century War began on August 1, 1914 and ended on November 8, 1989.[1]  The War began with Paris streets filled with people who watched with increasingly sober silence as drummers beat the rappel calling reservists to the… Read more »